What is Jardiance?
Jardiance is a brand-name diabetes medication that helps treat patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus:
- improve blood sugar levels in combination with a healthy diet an exercise
- reduce the risk of death from heart attack, stroke or heart failure for people with type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease.
Jardiance contains empagliflozin which is classified as a class of drugs called sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors. Empagliflozin works by helping the kidneys get rid of glucose in the bloodstream.
It comes in a tablet form and taken orally twice daily.
Effectiveness of Jardiance
During a 24-week clinical study with adults with type 2 diabetes, patients experienced the following results:
- Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels were lowered by 0.7-0.8 percent
- Fasting blood sugar levels were lowered by 19-25 mg/dL
- Body weight was reduced by 2.8-3.2 percent from starting body weight.
In a 3-year clinical study, it was found that Jardiance reduced the risk of cardiovascular death by 38% in both people with heart disease and diabetes.
This drug is also effective when used together with other diabetes medications such as insulin, metformin, glipizide and pioglitazone.
How to use Jardiance
Before starting Jardiance and each refill, patients should review the medication guide provided by your pharmacist. Consult your doctor or pharmacist if you have any questions regarding this medication.
Jardiance is taken orally once-daily, typically during morning hours, with or without food. A doctor will prescribe your dose based on your current medical condition and response to treatment.
Take this medication at the same time each day in order to achieve optimal results.
Consult your doctor if you find your condition does not improve or worsen while taking this medication such as your blood sugar levels remain high or increases.
If you miss your dose, take it as soon as possible. If you next dose is near then just skip the missed dose. Continue taking your dose at the usual time. Never take a double dose to catch up
Keep medication at room temperature away from moisture and direct light.
Do not store in the bathroom.
Keep medication away from children and pets.
Do not dispose of medication down toilet or into drainage. Speak to your pharmacist about how to properly dispose of unused or expired medication.
As with any medication, side effects can occur while taking Jardiance. The following information below does not cover all possible side effects.
Speak to your doctor or pharmacist to get detailed information on the possible side effects associated with Jardiance.
Common Side Effects
Common side effects experienced by patients taking Jardiance include:
- urinary tract infections (urinating more often, cloudy urine, burning sensation while urinating)
- vaginal yeast infections (soreness, itching and soreness while urinating)
Consult your doctor if you experience any of these symptoms. You may require over-the-counter medication.
Serious Side Effects
Serious side effects associated with Jardiance may occur but typically rare. If you do experience serious side effects contact your doctor. If you feel the symptoms are life-threatening, seek medical emergency by calling 911.
Serious side effects may include:
- Hypotension (low blood pressure). Symptoms can include:
- clammy skin
- feeling dizzy or falling when standing up
- loss of consciousness
- Kidney damage. Symptoms can include:
- decreased urination
- swelling in legs and ankles
- Increased low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels
- Ketoacidosis (blood becoming too acidic from a buildup of ketones in the body)
- Serious urinary tract infections (including pyelonephritis and urosepsis
- Fournier’s gangrene (severe infection near the genitals
- Genital yeast infections (both with women and men
- Serious allergic reactions
Side Effects in Detail
As with any medication, allergic reactions can occur. Patients that may be allergic to the contents of Jardiance may experience the following mild allergic reactions:
- flushing (warmth/redness of skin)
- skin rash
Symptoms of more severe allergic reactions may include:
- angioedema (swelling of skin, typically lips, eyelids, hands or feet)
- difficulty breathing
- swelling of mouth, tongue or throat
If you experience severe allergic reactions to Jardiance, contact your doctor. if you feel the symptoms are life-threatening, call 911 medical emergency.
Gancrene is a type of infection that can cause tissue in the body to die. During clinical trials, gangrene was not reported however was reported after. Gancrene has occurred with patients taking Jardiance and similar drugs.
Fournier’s gangrene, a rare type of gangrene, has been reported in those taking Jardiance. Fournier’s gangrene is known to be very serious and cause tissue in the genital region to become infected and die.
Symptoms of Fournier’s gangrene may include:
- feeling of discomfort
- redness, swelling, pain in the genitals or rectum
- fever or chills
Call your doctor immediately if you experience any of these symptoms. Treatment for Fournier’s gangrene may include hospitalization, surgery and amputation.
Urinary Tract Infection
Urinary Tract Infection or UTI is one of the most common side effects associated with Jardiance which affects both men and women. It is more prevalent in women affecting 17-18.4% in contrast with 3.6-4.1% of men.
Symptoms may include:
- burning sensation during urination
- dark or cloudy urine
- fatigue (low energy)
- fever or chills
- frequent urination
- pelvic pain in women
- rectal or pelvic pain in men
- strong odor in urine
UTI can become quite serious if it is left untreated and potentially lead to kidney infection. Contact your doctor if you are experiencing symptoms of urinary tract infection. Doctors may potentially prescribe medication to treat UTI.
Genital Yeast Infections
Although very rare, genital yeast infections are a very common side effect according to clinical trials conducted with Jardiance. Genital yeast infections are more common in women, having been reported 5.4-6.4% of women in comparison to 1.6-3.1% found in men.
Symptoms of genital yeast infections may include:
- pain or soreness
- thick white discharge
If you have symptoms of yeast infections, contact your doctor immediately as they can become quite serious. It has been found in rare cases that when yeast infections are left untreated they can lead to Fournier’s gangrene. Over-the-counter medication may be prescribed by your doctor to treat genital yeast infections.
During ketoacidosis, people have abnormally high amounts of ketones in their blood. The human body create ketones after breaking down fat from food. For patients taking Jardiance, this can mean a buildup of ketones in the body and cause acid buildup in the bloodstream.
It was found during clinical trials that people taking Jardiance had an increased risk of ketoacidosis. The prevelance of ketoacidosis among patients taking Jardiance is unknown.
Symptoms of ketoacidosis include:
- abdominal pain
- frequent urination
- fruity-smelling breath
- high blood glucose levels
- high ketone levels in urine
- increased thirst
- rapid breathing
If left untreated, ketoacidosis can become life-threatening and require immediate medical attention.
Clinical studies have shown that 2.4% of people taking Jardiance had joint pain. Since both those who took Jardiance and the placebo both reported joint pain, it is unclear whether Jardiance causes joint pain.
Inform your doctor if you are experiencing joint pain while taking Jardiance.
Several clinical studies observing the risk of pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas) while taking Jardiance found that patients have a 0.1% chance of developing the condition.
You may be at greater risk if you have previously had pancreatitis. If you are concerned or would like more information regarding the risks of pancreatitis while taking Jardiance, speak to your pharmacist or doctor.
It’s possible that skin rashes may be a side effect of Jardiance. People taking Jardiance developed skin rashes during clinical trials however it’s possible this may have been a result of yeast infections. Currently it is not known how common skin rashes are while taking Jardiance.
During clinical studies, abdominal pain was not reported by people taking Jardiance. However this side effect can be a symptoms of other side effects. For example, people may experience pain in the abdomen caused by urinary tract infections or ketoacidosis.
Consult your doctor if you are experiencing abdominal pain while taking Jardiance as they may provide ways to manage it.
WARNING & PRECAUTIONS
Jardiance is not to be used for treating type 1 diabetes.
It’s possible that patients may have an allergy to empagliflozin or any of its inactive ingredients. Let your doctor or pharmacist know of any allergies you have.
Let your doctor or pharmacist know of any serious medical conditions such as kidney problems, livery problems, heart failure, high cholesterol, dehydration or history of yeast infections.
Patients using Jardiance should not drive or operate heavy machinery unless they are sure it is safe to do so. This is because it may cause extremely low or high blood sugar causing symptoms such as impaired vision, drowsiness or dizziness.
Consider alcohol consumption while taking this medication as it may lead to high ketone levels and low blood sugar levels.
When the body is stressed due to factors such as skipping meals, illness, fever, infection, surgery or injury, it may make it harder for patients to manage blood sugar levels and lead to high ketone levels. Depending on blood sugar levels or ketone levels your doctor may adjust your treatment.
Inform your doctor or dentist you are taking Jardiance before undergoing surgery.
Seniors may experience symptoms such as kidney problems, dehydrations, dizziness or fainting while standing while taking this medication.
Seniors are also at at increased risk of decreases in blood sugar an urinary tract infections while taking Jardiance.
Diabetes may worsen during pregnancy and as a result your doctor may choose to adjust your treatment. This medication should only be used as needed during pregnancy. Speak to your doctor about the possible risks of taking Jardiance and any changes to your treatment during pregnancy.
Whether this medication passes through breast milk is unknown. Inform your doctor if you are breast feeding or planning on breast feeding.
Taking Jardiance in combination with other drugs may increase your risk of serious side effects or affect your blood sugar. The information below does not contain all possible drug interactions.
Inform your doctor or pharmacist about other medications you are currently taking including herbal supplements, over-the-counter drugs and vitamins. Do not start or stop any medication without informing your doctor first.
Check your blood sugar levels regularly or as instructed by your doctor.
Other drugs that may interact with Jardiance (empagliflozin) include:
- acetylsalicylic acid (ASA)
- androgens (i.e. testosterone
- antimalarials (i.e. chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, quinine
- atypical antipsychotics (i.e. clozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone)
- corticosteroids (i.e. beclomethasone, cortisone, dexamethasone, hydrocortisone, prednisone)
- other diabetes medications (i.e. chlorpropamide, glyburide, insulin, metformin, rosiglitazone)
- diuretics (water pills; i.e. furosemide, hydrochlorothiazide, triamterene)
- estrogens (i.e. conjugated estrogen, estradiol, ethinyl estradiol)
- hepatitis C antivirals (i.e. elbasvir, grazoprevir, ledipasvir, sofosbuvir, velpatasvir)
- HIV protease inhibitors (i.e. atazanavir, indinavir, ritonavir, saquinavir)
- monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs; i.e. moclobemide, phenelzine, rasagiline, selegiline, tranylcypromine)
- progestins (i.e. dienogest, levonorgestrel, medroxyprogesterone, norethindrone)
- quinolone antibiotics (i.e. ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, ofloxacin)
- selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs; i.e. citalopram, fluoxetine, paroxetine, sertraline)
- sulfonamide antibiotics (“sulfas”; i.e. sulfisoxazole, sulfamethoxazole)
The safety and effectiveness of this medication with children has not been tested.
Diabetic Ketoacidosis has been linked with taking Empagliflozin. This condition is potentially life-threatening caused by lack of insulin in the blood. This is most likely caused by low carbohydrate diets, dehydration or consuming large amounts of alcohol.
Symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis include:
- stomach pain
- fatigue or sleepiness
- loss of appetite
Seek medical attention if you are experiencing any of these symptoms.
Jardiance can cause increased levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) which is a type of cholesterol in the blood stream. If you have high cholesterol or at high risk of developing high cholesterol, inform your doctor. Your doctor may choose to measure your cholesterol levels regularly while taking this medication.
If you are going for major surgery you should temporarily stop taking this medication. Medication will continue after surgery, kidney function has been tested and are back to eating and drinking again. Consult your doctor about stopping your insulin dosage prior to surgery as they may provide additional instructions.
Jardiance may cause kidney function. Consult your doctor if you have experienced kidney disease or reduced kidney function as Empagliflozin may affect your medical condition. Your doctor may choose to adjust your treatment and whether any special monitoring is required.
Jardiance may cause increased amount of fluid to be removed from the boy through urine. A decrease in blood pressure may result causing dizziness when getting up from a seated position. To avoid the possibility of fainting or dizziness, carefully rise up when in a seated position.
Inform your doctor:
- if you have any existing medical conditions
- are pregnant or planning on becoming pregnant
- are breast feeding or planning to breast feed
- are taking any other medications (including OTC drugs, herbal supplements, vitamins etc.)
- any other significant facts about your health
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